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Organismal Biology and Ecology

Organismal Biology and Ecology Website

Professors EBERSOLE, HATHAWAY, KELSO, SNYDER; Associate Professors HESCHEL, LINKHART, WILSON; Assistant Professor GRAY; Visiting Associate Professor DRUMMOND

As of July 1, 2014, the Biology Department has split into two departments: Organismal Biology and Ecology (OBE), and Molecular Biology (MB). The major requirements for each are still very similar to the tracks of the former Biology Department. Ask your advisor for details, and take a close look at the new major's handbooks for 2014-15.

Download the Major's Handbook for Organismal Biology and Ecology for all information pertinent to this new major. Please note this copy is under revision and the final copy will be available in late August. If you have any concerns about this transition, please speak with your advisor.

Major Requirements

THE OBE MAJOR: A SHORT GUIDE TO REQUIREMENTS

  1. Two units in Introductory Organismal Biology: BY105 and/or BY106 and/or BY107
  2. BY208 Ecology
  3. Two units in Molecular and Cellular Biology and in Genetics: BY131, and BY280 or BY231
  4. Three units in Chemistry: CH107 and CH108 and CH250
  5. Two units in Mathematics: one unit of calculus and one unit of statistics or mathematical modeling
  6. Five approved OBE Electives
  7. Senior capstone experience (of which the senior capstone course can count as one of the electives)

REQUIREMENTS FOR THE OBE MAJOR: THE FULL GUIDE

  1. Two units in Introductory Organismal Biology:
    • BY105 Biology of Plants
    • BY106 Biology of Animals
    • BY107 Biology of Microbes

    AP/IB credit may count towards a lower-level elective or as credit for BY131 (see below), but cannot replace these organismal courses.

  2. BY208 Ecology
  3. Two units in Molecular and Cellular Biology and in Genetics:
    • BY131 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology
      A biology AP score of 5 or an IB-HL score of 5-7 fulfills this requirement (a biology AP score of 4 or an IB score of 4 count as a lower-level elective).
    • BY280 Population Genetics OR BY231 Genetics
  4. Three units in Chemistry:
    • CH107 General Chemistry I
    • CH108 General Chemistry II
      If you have Chemistry AP or IB credit on your transcript, you may take a bypass exam for CH107 or CH108 that is administered by the Chemistry Department. Successful completion of the Chemistry bypass will exempt you from that course with respect to the OBE major. While some students are able to bypass CH107, skipping CH108 is rare and not recommended because the lab experience in CH108 helps greatly in future classes. Contact Ted Lindeman (tlindeman@coloradocollege.edu) in Chemistry for more information or to arrange to take a bypass exam. 
    • CH250 Structures of Organic Molecules
      NOTE: Graduate schools in biology and health professions programs often require both CH250 AND CH251 Reactions of Organic Molecules.
  5. Two units in Mathematics:
    • One unit of calculus from:
      • MA126 Calculus I
      • MA127 Calculus I and II, accelerated
      • MA129 Calculus II
    • AP or IB credit recognized by the registrar counts towards this. Choose your calculus course carefully so that you avoid doing mostly review and do not take a course without adequate preparation.  The Math Department recommends the following: 
      • If you have Calculus AB credit on your transcript, take Calculus II and not Calculus I.
      • If you have Calculus BC credit, do not take Calculus II. If you want to take more math, take a computer science class or a higher-level math class (ask your advisor for recommendations).
      • If you have IB credit, talk to the Math Department.
      • If you took Calculus in high school but do not have AP or IB credit, talk to the Math Department.
    • One unit of statistics or mathematical modeling from:
      • BY220 Biostatistics and Experimental Design
      • MA256/BY256 Mathematical Models in Biology
      • MA117 Probability and Statistics
      • MA217 Probability and Statistical Modeling
      • EV228 Analysis of Environmental Data
    • AP or IB credit recognized by the registrar in statistics. The statistics/modeling requirement is fulfilled by AP or IB credit in statistics.  However, many students with this credit have benefitted a great deal by still taking BY220.
  6. Five approved OBE Electives
    • All BY courses except BY100 and BY104 may count as electives. BY101 (FYE) counts as one elective.
    • The following Human Biology and Kinesiology courses may count as electives: HK204, HK304, and HK321.
    • One unit of elective credit may be CH382, GY205, GY300, EV422, AN201, AN207, or AN306.
    • AP/IB credit may count as one unit of lower level elective credit (ask your advisor).
    • Three of the electives must be upper-level (numbered 300 or higher). Two of these must be OBE (BY) upper-level courses (one of these must be a capstone course taken during the last eight blocks before graduation - see capstone options below). The remaining upper-level elective may be a non-BY class.
    • Not more than a total of two research blocks (BY309, BY409 or BY499) may count towards the major.
    • It is possible to petition the department to ask for other courses to count as electives.
  7. Senior capstone experience
    During your junior and senior years, you must:
    • Complete attendance at five OBE seminars, summarize each in an abstract, and submit each abstract electronically to both Donna Sison and your advisor no later than the first Monday of the block following the block in which the seminar occurred. Students are strongly advised to begin turning in abstracts before their senior year.
    • Successfully pass the Biology ETS exam or the Biology GRE exam. 
      • Register to take the 2-hour ETS Major Field Test in Biology early in Block 3 or early in Block 6, the only two times OBE offers the exam.  It is best to take the ETS exam in Block 3 in case you do not pass the exam. See the “Senior Capstone” section below on advice to prepare for this exam and links to sample questions.
      • Alternatively, you can take the Biology GRE in the fall, but we strongly recommend that you take the ETS exam instead. You must list Colorado College as a recipient of the GRE scores.
    • Complete a senior capstone course (this also counts as one of your five electives) in the last two semesters prior to graduation), in one of the following ways:
      • BY499 Senior Thesis
      • BY409 Advanced Research in OBE (if it meets the requirements described in the section on “Senior Capstone” - ask the faculty member supervising your research).
      • Capstone course options vary from year to year. The current list of approved OBE capstone courses is: BY308 Advanced Ecology, BY365 Plant Physiology, BY366 Comparative Animal Physiology, BY367 Animal Ecology, BY390 Ecology and Biogeography of Patagonia, BY410 Ornithology, BY412 Entomology, BY415 Evolution, BY421 Conservation Biology, BY442 Special Topics: Biology of Disease Vectors, BY475 Techniques in Molecular Ecology.

Courses

Biology

BY100 Studies in Biology:

Presents students not majoring in biology with inquiries into contemporary issues and phenomena in the biological sciences. Activities include lectures, readings, discussions, and laboratory or field experiences. May not be counted toward a biology major. (May meet the laboratory/field requirement for critical perspectives.)

Also listed as Comparative Literature 220 and English 280.

1 unit — Bertrand, Bertrand, Gray, Heschel

BY101 Introduction to Molecular Microbiology

This course introduces the theory and practice of microbiology, with an emphasis on laboratory investigations of bacterial life. The origins of life on earth, the isolation, cultivation and identification of bacteria, bacterial genetics, and infectious disease including HIV/AIDS will be examined through discussion, laboratory work, and lecture. Can count as 1 unit of lower-level elective credit toward a Biology major. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: 2 yrs HS Biology & 1 yr HS Chemistry or consent of instructor.

2 units

BY105 Biology of Plants

The study of plants with an emphasis on the flowering plants. Relationships between form and function, growth and development and evolutionary and ecological relationships are examined with attention given to the chemical bases of plant life, the fundamentals of metabolic pathways, and the integrative nature of plant structures from cellular to ecological levels. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Strong high school Chemistry highly recommended.

1 unit — Heschel, Kelso

BY106 Biology of Animals

An introduction to the biology of invertebrate and vertebrate animals. Evolution and functional architecture of animal body plans, patterns of structure and function, survival strategies, principles of animal ecology and evolution, and phylogeny of animal groups examined through lab, discussion, and investigative activities. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: (Strong high school chemistry highly recommended) No credit after Biology 108 or 109.

1 unit — Erb, Gray, Snyder

BY107 Biology of Microbes

An introduction to the world of Bacteria, Archaea, microscopic Eukarya and viruses. Emphasizing the role of microbes as causal agents of major human disease (TB, AIDS, malaria); as essential components of the human microbiome; as critical elements in biogeochemical processes; and as tools in agriculture, industry and food production. Lecture, discussion, student presentations and laboratory projects. No credit towards the Biology major if taken after Biology 101 or 231. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Strong high school Chemistry highly recommended.

1 unit — Lostroh, Wilson

BY131 Introduction to Molecular and Cellular Biology

Structures and functions of biomacromolecules, organelles, and cells and the flow of energy and information within and among them. Laboratory and lecture course designed to provide an introduction to molecular and cellular biology, with emphasis on how to address questions experimentally. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Quantitative Reasoning requirement.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 210.

1 unit — Bertrand, Bertrand, Huang, Schittone

BY202 Field Botany

A field course involving collection, identification, and preservation of vascular plants, emphasizing evolution, ecology and biogeography. Takes advantage of the major ecosystems of the Pikes Peak region. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Biology 105.

1 unit — Kelso

BY205 Human Evolution

Fossil and genetic evidence for human evolution as well as the implications of evolution for understanding the adaptations of modern humans. Nature and timing of the developments that led from our distant, rodent-like ancestors to humans as we are today. Evolutionary theories that have been proposed to explain these changes. Adaptive significance of changes in the relationship between members of our lineage is also stressed. Through lectures, laboratories, discussions, and student presentations, students learn some of the basic principles of molecular genetics and discuss the use of genetics in evolutionary research. No credit toward Biology major if taken after Biology 231. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 105 or 106 or 107 or 108 or 109 or Anthropology 101.

1 unit

BY207 Human Anatomy

A cadaver dissection course designed to help students gain an understanding of the fundamental concepts of the structure of the human body. Designed to meet the needs of students interested in pre- and allied health fields when taken in conjunction with BY/SC 321. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 210, Biology 106 or 109, and Chemistry 108.

1 unit

BY208 Ecology

The analysis of distributions, abundances, and interrelationships of organisms. Populations, communities, and ecosystems are investigated, and implications for humans considered. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World lab or field requirement.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 107 and 1 unit from Biology 105, 107, 108, 109 Geology 130 or 140.

1 unit — Ebersole, Erb, Gray

BY220 Biostatistics and Experimental Design

Emphasis on application rather than theory or derivation. Topics: measures of central tendency and variability, correlation, regression, t-tests, Chi-square, analysis of variance, selected non-parametric methods, statistical inference and experimental design. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement. Meets the Critical Perspectives: Quantitative Reasoning requirement.

Prerequisite: At least 1 college biology course or consent of instructor. No Credit after Economics 200 or Mathematics 117.

1 unit — Ebersole

BY231 Genetics

Nature, transmission and expression of hereditary information; lecture and laboratory will include principles of molecular and transmission genetics with an emphasis on concepts and laboratory techniques used in contemporary molecular genetic research.

Prerequisite: 1)Biology 131 or 210;and 2) Chemistry 108 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 361.

1 unit — Huang, Schittone, Wilson

BY232 Cells and Genes

Structures and functions of biomacromolecules, organelles, cells, as well as the flow of energy and information within and among them. Nature, transmission and expression of hereditary information. Laboratory and lecture course designed to integrate molecular and cellular biology and genetics, with emphasis on how to address questions experimentally.

2 units — Killian, Lostroh

BY240 Special Topics in Biology:

Special topics in Biology not offered on a regular basis. (Not offered 2014-15).

1 unit

BY244 Histotechnique

Students will acquire the basic knowledge necessary to prepare animal and plant tissues for examination by light microscopy. Theoretical aspects of fixation, paraffin embedding, sectioning techniques, and the art of staining will be emphasized. Interpretation of results will be facilitated through lecture/discussion sessions highlighting the basics of histology. Limit 16 students. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 105 or 109 recommended.

.5 to 1 unit

BY249 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

1 unit

BY256 Mathematical Models in Biology

An introduction to selected quantitative models drawn from ecology, genetics, and physiology. For each model the course includes an investigation of the mathematical methods used, an evaluation of the model, and some elementary simulation techniques. (Offered alternate years). Meets the Critical Perspectives: Scientific Investigation of the Natural World requirement. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Mathematics 126 and 1 college biology course.

1 unit

BY280 Population Genetics

Classical genetics as it applies to understanding the evolution of populations. This course examines the following topics: genetic issues of small and isolated populations, Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, factors affecting allele frequencies, variance and F-statistics, molecular methods, and quantitative genetics. This course also includes discussions of contemporary issues in applied population genetics and laboratory investigations.

Prerequisite: Biology 131 or 210, Biology 208, and Chemistry 108; or consent of instructor.

1 unit — Heschel

BY302 Advanced Field Research Methods in Botany

This class will build upon the introductory field botany skills acquired in BY202 and BY208. Using local environments and field problems, the class will investigate local and regional issues of plant diversity, conservation, and biotic interactions. We will focus on expanding botanical skills in plant identification, vegetation assessment, and biodiversity documentation that are valuable for research, internships, and job applications, and employ these skills in the context of answering questions related to field-based botanical issues. The class will involve extensive field, laboratory, and herbarium work, as well as the development of an individual field-based research project. Local and regional field trips, some possibly overnight with camping. Students should be prepared for long hours under sometimes inclement weather conditions. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 105 & 106 (or Biology 108 or 109)and Biology 208 or Environmental Science 209.

1 unit

BY304 Immunology

A survey of the main elements of the human body's defenses against invading microorganisms. Emphasis is on the cellular and molecular mechanisms of B and T lymphocyte functioning, along with consideration of autoimmune and immune deficiency diseases. Lecture, discussion and laboratory. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 210 (Biology 301 recommended).

1 unit

BY308 Advanced Ecology

Field studies and theoretical topics selected to illustrate the research process and ecological thought. Will include use of ecological literature.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 208.

1 unit — Snyder

BY309 Research Problems in Biology:

Independent research projects based on laboratory or field investigation. Experimental studies completed away from campus must receive prior departmental approval. (Class, laboratory or field activities arranged.) (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 or 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & 2 from 105, 107, 108 or 109 & 210 (total 3) & arranged 1 block ahead.

Also listed as Biology 409.

1 unit — Bertrand, Gray, Heschel, Huang

BY321 Human Physiology

The course provides an integrative approach to understanding basic anatomical and physiological relationships of major organ systems in the human body through human cadaver dissection. Designed to meet the needs of students interested in pre and allied health fields when taken in conjunction with BY/SC 207. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: BY/SC 207.

1 unit

BY330 Parasitic Protozoa

The biology of parasitic protozoa in humans and other animals. Lecture, laboratory and readings will focus on host-parasite relations, life histories, morphology, and physiology of parasitic protozoa. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 108 or 109 or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY331 Parasitic Helminths

The biology of worms parasitic in humans and other animals. Lecture, laboratory and readings will focus on host-parasite relations, life histories, morphology, and physiology of parasitic helminths. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 108 or 109 or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY332 Animal Behavior

A comparative study of the diversities of behavioral systems of animals. Lecture, laboratory and field work include ethological theories and methods, emphasizing observation, denotation and analysis of behavior. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either 106 or 109; or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY341 Special Topics in Biology:

Special topics in Biology not offered on a regular basis. (Not offered 2014-15).

.5 to 1 unit

BY342 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

1 unit

BY343 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

1 unit

BY344 Scanning Electron Microscopy

Basic principles of electron optical systems, image formation, specimen preparation, and photography. Individual instruction in the care, use and operation of the instrument as a research tool is emphasized. in the natural sciences.

Prerequisite: Sophomore standing & prior course work in natural science.

1 unit — Hathaway

BY345 Transmission Electron Microscopy

Basic principles of electron optical systems, image formation, specimen preparation, ultramicrotomy, and photography. Individual instruction in the care, use, and operation of the instrument as a research tool is emphasized.

Prerequisite: Biology 210 & Sophomore standing.

1 unit — Hathaway

BY348 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

1 unit

BY349 Special Topics in Biology:

1 unit — Schittone

BY350 Advanced Genetic Analysis

Lecture and discussion of primary literature and advanced topics in genetics. This course is tailored for students interested in using primary research literature to discuss and learn about current genetic research in an interactive setting. Lecture and literature topics may include mitotic recombination, meiotic drive, recombinant inbreds, SNP mapping, trans-sensing, and techniques in the molecular-genetic manipulation of cells, and organisms.

Prerequisite: Biology 231, 280, or 361 and Chemistry 250.

1 unit — Bertrand

BY359 Microbiology and Molecular Genetics

Heredity, gene expression, physiology, and experimental manipulation of microbial genomes. Through lecture, discussion, and laboratory, the course explores microbial life as investigated using experimental genetics, genomics, ioinformatics, and biochemistry, with an emphasis on bacteria and the fundamental processes of cellular life such as metabolism, regulation of gene expression, synthesis and assembly of supramolecular structures, and signal transduction. Laboratory emphasizes experimental design and analysis.

Prerequisite: Biology 231 or 361.

1 unit — Lostroh

BY362 Plant Ecology

Descriptive and analytical studies of plant communities and populations. Field work includes sampling techniques and their application to answer specific research questions. Readings and discussions cover the various perspectives and theories of plant ecology. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 208 (Biology 202 recommended).

1 unit

BY365 Plant Physiology

Whole plant physiology with an emphasis on growth and development through examination of structure and function of cells and organs, metabolism, stress biology, and phytohormones. Includes discussions of primary literature in the discipline, a laboratory investigation and an emphasis on writing a scientific paper.

Prerequisite: 1)Biology 105;2)Biology 131 or 210; and 3)Chemistry 250 or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 364 or 474.

1 unit — Heschel

BY366 Comparative Animal Physiology

A whole-animal perspective on survival and maintenance of homeostasis in variable and often stressful environments. We will focus on aspects of water balance, feeding, digestion, metabolism, respiration and circulation. Course includes field and laboratory investigations.

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and 131, and one from Biology 106, 108 or 109; or consent of instructor.

1 unit — Gray

BY367 Animal Ecology (X/list with SW 303)

A field course involving collection, identification, and population and life-history studies of animals of regional ecosystems. Principles of animal ecology, behavior, and biogeography, are emphasized through field case studies and discussion of primary literature. Field work includes sampling techniques and their application to answer specific research questions. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either Biology 106, 108, or 109; or consent of instructor. No credit after Biology 203.

1 unit

BY369 Tropical Ecology

Introduction to the ecology of tropical wet forests and coral reefs, with emphasis on the high biological diversity common to these ecosystems. The course is linked to BY 370 Tropical Forest and Coral Reef Ecology, and students must enroll in both courses.

Prerequisite: Jr or Sr standing, Biology 208 & enrollment in Biology 370.

.5 unit — Drummond, Snyder

BY370 Tropical Forest and Coral Reef Ecology

Ecology of tropical wet forests and coral reefs taught at forest and reef sites in the tropics. Field studies, theoretical topics, and primary ecological literature will be used to explore interactions in these systems, with emphasis on selected organisms and system characteristics. The course is linked to cross-cultural experience with local people. The course is linked to BY 369 Tropical Ecology, and students must enroll in both courses. EXTRA EXPENSE. Prerequisite: Junior or senior standing, BY 208, BY 369, and good swimming ability. 1 unit--Capen and Snyder.

Prerequisite: Jr or Sr standing, Biology 208, 369 & good swimming ability. EXTRA EXPENSE.

1 unit — Drummond, Snyder

BY375 Environmental Microbiology

Study of the ecology of microbes in environments as diverse as deep-ocean volcanic vents; termite hind guts; the lithosphere; the human guts; plant roots; ice of the Arctic and Antarctic; and terrestrial models of extra-terrestrial environments. Emphasis on discussion of primary literature in environmental microbiology and microbial ecology. Significant laboratory component and minor field component. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 107, or 101, Biology 131 or 210, Biology 231 or 361, and Chemistry 108; or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY380 Advanced Cell Biology

Study of select processes that occur in eukaryotic cells such as cytoskeletal dynamics, membrane transport, protein targeting, cell-cell communication, and regulation of cell division and death. Heavy emphasis on how questions in cell biology are addresses experimentally. Course includes lectures, discussion of primary literature, and laboratories.

Prerequisite: Chemistry 250 and either Biology 231 or 361.

1 unit — Huang

BY389 Patagonian Ecology and Biogeography

Introduction to the ecology and biogeography of Patagonia, including montane, steppe and coastal ecosystems. The course is linked to Biology 390 Ecology and Biogeography of Patagonia, and students must enroll in both courses. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing. Biology 208 and enrollment in Biology 390.

.5 unit

BY390 Ecology and Biogeography of Patagonia

On-site investigations of the ecology and biogeography of Andean mountain forests and Patagonian steppe and studies of the ecology of several marine vertebrate species at the Atlantic coast. Students will read and present original literature, meet with local scientists at their study sites, and develop hypotheses that could be tested in the ecosystems we visit. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Junior or Senior standing, Biology 208, Biology 389 (half-block), and consent of instructor. (taught in Patagonia) Extra Expense.

1 to 2 units

BY391 Molecular and Cellular Virology

The molecular genetics, cell biology, and biochemistry of viruses, including attachment to, entry into, and synthesis and assembly inside of host cells. Through lecture, discussion, and laboratory, the course emphasizes the experimental basis of biologists’ understanding of the molecular details of DNA replication, transcription, translation, gene regulation, protein localization, cell division, and signal transduction, and how viruses manipulate, subvert, and exploit these cellular processes. Laboratory emphasizes propagation and analysis of bacteriophages.

1 unit — Lostroh

BY401 Laboratory Investigations in Molecular Microbiology

A laboratory- intensive course with supplementary discussions and lectures. Topics include experimental design and analysis, genetic manipulation of bacterial plasmids and chromosomes, bioinformatical analysis of bacterial genomes, and physiological analysis of mutants. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 301.

1 unit

BY403 Research Problems in Biochemistry

An independent research project intended for biochemistry majors and based on laboratory investigation in biochemistry. The student should choose the original research topic with advice from member(s) of the department prior to registration in the class. (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 and 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: Chemistry 245, 382 & consent of instructor.

.25 to 1 unit

BY409 Research Problems in Biology:

Independent research projects based on laboratory or field investigation., consent of instructor, and registration at least one block prior to the block in which the research is to be initiated. Experimental studies completed away from campus must receive prior departmental approval. (Class, laboratory or field activities arranged.) (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 or 499 may count toward the Biology major.)

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & 2 from 105, 107, 108 or 109 & 210 (total 3) & arranged 1 block ahead.

Also listed as Biology 309.

1 unit — Bertrand, Gray, Heschel, Huang

BY410 Ornithology

Identification, taxonomy, anatomy, physiology, behavior and ecology of birds, including field and laboratory work.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 203.

1 unit — Linkhart

BY412 Entomology

Evolution, taxonomy, structure, physiology, development, behavior and ecology of insects. Laboratory includes identification, dissection, experimentation, curation and field work. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor or Biology 108, 208.

1 unit

BY415 Seminar in Evolutionary Biology

A capstone course primarily for upper level biology students. We will examine and critique classical concepts of evolutionary theory and their modern extensions through reading scientific literature and by drawing upon students' previous knowledge and experience in diverse fields of biology. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: 2 units from Biology 105, 106, 107, 108 or 109 and 1 unit from Biology 231, 280, or 361.

1 unit

BY421 Conservation Biology

Conservation issues of plant and animal species, habitats, and ecological systems will be examined through reading, discussion, and project-based exploration of local, national, and global examples. Core components of conservation biology theory such as habitat fragmentation, problems of small populations, rarity, genetic erosion, reserve design, and invasive species will be emphasized in the context of the local environment.

Prerequisite: Biology 105, 131, 208, and one from Biology 106, 108, 109.

1 unit — Kelso

BY422 Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Ecology

This course explores links between the biosphere, geosphere, atmosphere, and hydrosphere across many different scales, from the microorganism to the globe. The primary focus will be on the cycling of biologically important elements in natural and managed ecosystems with an emphasis on how these cycles will change under increased human influence. Students will gain hands-on research experience using analytical techniques in the field and the laboratory, and they will share their results in a formal scientific paper and presentation. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: (BY/EV 208) & (Environmental Science 155 or Geology 130 or 140) & (Mathematics 117 or Biology 220 or Economics 200) or consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY440 Special Topics in Biology:

Special Topics in Biology. Special topics in biology not offered on a regular basis.

Prerequisite: consent of instructor & Junior or Senior standing.

1 unit — Erb, Killian, Schittone

BY442 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY443 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 208.

1 unit

BY446 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY447 Special Topics in Biology:

(Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: consent of instructor.

1 unit

BY450 Seminar in Biomedical Research

A capstone course intended for upper level students in the Molecular and Cellular Biology track. Focuses on understanding the genetics, molecular principles, and emerging technologies in biomedical research. Students will present a paper from the literature and critique scientific proposals that address topics in biomedical research. Students will propose next steps in the proposed research, write critiques and a collaborative biomedical research proposal given expected results. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 231, 280 or 361 and Chemistry 250.

1 unit

BY453 Stem Cell Biology

Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that are capable of self-renewal and have the potential to develop into specialized cells types. Stem cells are important for development, reproduction, growth, healing, and homeostasis. This course covers the microenvironments that are required to maintain stem cells, asymmetric cell division, the genes required for stem cell fate, the use of stem cells for medical applications, and ethical considerations. This course includes lectures, discussion of primary research articles, student presentations, and labs. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 231.

1 unit

BY463 Seminar in Bacterial Pathogenesis

Biology of infectious bacterial disease with emphasis on molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Through reading, discussing and critiquing primary literature, and developing a research proposal, the course integrates students' knowledge of molecular biology and biochemistry. (Not offered 2014-15).

Prerequisite: Biology 231 or 361, Biology 359, and Chemistry 382.

1 unit

BY466 Developmental Biology

Study of the development of the fertilized egg into a multicellular organism with multiple cell types, tissues, and organs working together. Emphasis on the genetic regulation of developmental processes, cell-cell communication, and the methods by which these processes are elucidated. Course includes lectures, discussion of primary literature, and laboratories.

Prerequisite: Biology 231 and 380, or Biology 361; or consent of instructor.

1 unit — Huang

BY475 Techniques in Molecular Ecology and Systematics

A course on the techniques employed in molecular ecology and molecular systematics, such as DNA fingerprinting, DNA sequencing, phylogenetics and 'DNA barcoding.' The class will discuss primary literature in the areas of ecology, systematics, conservation biology and biodiversity, with an emphasis on the appropriate application of molecular techniques in these disciplines and on the interpretation of molecular data. Laboratory projects will involve DNA sequencing and phylogenetics.

Prerequisite: Biology 208 and either Biology 231, 280 or 361 or consent of instructor.

1 unit — Wilson

BY499 Senior Thesis

Writing of the senior thesis based on data from an undergraduate research project. The thesis topic is to be chosen by the student following consultation with a member of the Biology Department faculty who agrees to serve as the project and thesis advisor. (Only 2 units from 309, 403, 409 may count toward the Biology major; only 1 unit of 499 may count toward the major.)

1 unit — Heschel, Lostroh